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Volume 12, Number 3, 2007

Infectious complications in children conditioned for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning or with treosulfan-based reduced toxicity preparative regimen

Jacek Wachowiak, Grzegorz Grund


<b>Background</b> To expand access to allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) to patients who are ineligible for conventional myeloablative FTBI- or
busulfan-based preparative regimens, the idea of reduced intensity conditioning
(RIC) in the early 1990s, and somewhat later in the late 1990s the idea of treosulfan-based reduced toxicity conditioning, were created. However, there is still need for further optimization of the conditioning regimen for allo – HSCT, which should demonstrate suffi cient myeloablative, immunosuppressive and antitumour effects (in the case of malignant disease) along with low early and late transplant-related mortality.
<b>Aim</b> Comparison of infections occurring in children prepared for allogeneic HSCT
with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and treosulfan-based reduced toxicity
conditioning regimen (TREO-RTC).
<b>Material/Methods</b> Data concerning infections in patients conditioned for allogeneic-HSCT with RIC and reported in references found using the PubMed database were compared
with data concerning 51 children prepared for allogeneic HSCT with TREO-RTC and reported by Grund et al. (2006).
<b>Results</b> Following RIC-HSCT the majority of infections occurred beyond day +30. Bacteria are leading agents causing infections. The pattern and incidence of fungal infections
are comparable to those observed after myeloablative conditioning, whilst incidence of EBV-reactivation and EBV-related disease is increased, but BK-viruria is less common. Reported 1-year mortality related to infections after RIC-HSCT is around 10%. In 51 children conditioned with TREO-RTC the profi le, incidence and timing of infections were comparable to those observed after conventional regimens (Grund et al., 2006). Three (5.9%) of them died due to infectious complications, one (1.9%) before day +100, and 2 (3.9%) late after transplantation
in the course of extensive chronic GvHD.
<b>Conclusions</b> Infections remain an issue in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT after RIC or TREO-RTC. Therefore prophylaxis, surveillance, early diagnosis and pre-emptive
treatment of infections still play an important role in supportive care after RIC- and TREO-RTC-HSCT. This approach should be adjusted to the immunereconstitution profi le related to immunosuppressive intensity of the regimen and GvHD prophylaxis, donor type, donor/recipient pretranspant viral status, stem cell source and GVHD occurrence. Standardization of supportive care after RIC- and TREO-RTC-HSCT, related to factors which determine risk of infections, is needed.

Signature: Rep Pract Oncol Radiother, 2007; 12(3) : 175-179


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