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Volume 23, Number 3, 2018

4D modeling in a gimbaled linear accelerator by using gold anchor markers

Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Takaaki Matsuura, Atsushi Kawakubo, Yasushi Nagata


Purpose The purpose of this study was to verify whether the dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) feature of a Vero4DRT system performs with 10-mm-long and 0.28 mm diameter gold anchor markers. Methods Gold anchor markers with a length of 10 mm and a diameter of 0.28 mm were used. Gold anchor markers were injected with short and long types into bolus material. These markers were sandwiched by a Tough Water (TW) phantom in the bolus material. For the investigation of 4-dimensional (4D) modeling feasibility under various phantom thicknesses, the TW phantom was added at 2 cm intervals (in upper and lower each by 1 cm). A programmable respiratory motion table was used to simulate breathing-induced organ motion, with an amplitude of 30 mm and a breathing cycle of 3 s. X-ray imaging parameters of 80 kV and 125 kV (320 mA and 5 ms) were used. The least detection error of the fiducial marker was defined as the 4D-modeling limitation. Results The 4D modeling process was attempted using short and long marker types and its limitation with the short and long types was with phantom thicknesses of 6 and 10 cm at 80 kV and 125 kV, respectively. However, the loss in detectability of the gold anchor because of 4D-modeling errors was found to be approximately 6% (2/31) with a phantom thickness of 2 cm under 125 kV. 4D-modeling could be performed except under the described conditions. Conclusions This work showed that a 10-mm-long gold anchor marker in short and long types can be used with DTT for short water equivalent path length site, such as lung cancer patients, in the Vero4DRT system.

Signature: Rep Pract Oncol Radiother, 2018; 23(3) : 183-188

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